The African Oil Palm is the crop with the highest oil yield per hectare. This explains why the Oil Palm industry is growing significantly around the world to provide fats and oils needed mostly by the food industry.
The sector is currently under pressure to ensure more sustainability to its practices. BIOTEC is part of this dynamic, providing relevant and tailor made solutions at environmental, agricultural, energy and social levels.
Each oil palm mill generates liquid by-products known as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). This effluent holds large amounts of organic matter, equivalent to those generated by densely populated cities, thus they pose a significant risk of environmental contamination.
On the other hand, these by-products have a high fertiliser value and energy potential. The bio-digestion of the "POME" in bio-digesters of the BIOTEC RAC model generates an average of 15 m3 de CH4 and 60 kWh per ton of fruit (FFB).
EFB fertilizer value is around 3 US$ per T FFB and POME fertilizer value is between 4 and 5 US$/T FFB.
Under the BIOTEC approach,there is no reason to send raw or treated POME to the river. These nutrients and this organic matter must go back to the soils.
BIOTEC developed the concept of the Zero Discharge Milling (ZDM) and developed several technologies to achieve it:
- Biodigestion + liquid fertilization
- Bio-evapo-drying to produce a powdered biofertilizer
- Co composting with EFB (4 meters high heap / lateral turning / no roof requirement).
BIOTEC also implements the SSP technology ofraw POME evapo-drying to produce animalfeed when enough steam is available in the industry.
Cane is the most important source of sugar in the world and,together with corn, as well as bio - ethanol, on par with corn.
While cane production is approaching 50 tons of dry matter per hectare per year, sugar and bioethanol production account together for 15 tons. The difference between these two numbers are the by-products (leaves, buds, bagasse, sludge, wastewater and vinasses) where the nutrients are exported bagasse, is an attractive biomass used as source of steam and electricity and in some cases as raw material for paper. Sugar mud (filter cake) and vinasses represent the major amount of nutrients. Good management of these by-products is an opportunity for agribusiness to obtain value-added to its core business and ensure long-term sustainability. Sugar mud, raw or composted, is usually spread on the crop. Vinasses represent an environmental (pollution) and agricultural (potassium concentration + salinization) challenge.
BIOTEC brings knowledge and experience in the handling of sugar mud, wastewater and vinasses, like:
- Sugar mud composting
- Vinasses and sugarmud co-composting
- Sugar mud biodigestion
- Vinasses biodigestion
- Vinasses + sugarmud co-digestion
- Vinasses bio-evapo-drying (up to powder)
- Vinasses + sugarmud bio-evapo-drying (up to powder)
Finally, BIOTEC promotes the organic fertilisation of sugarcane plantations with: filter mud cake, compost, purge of biodigesters sludge and treated vinasses. For the sugarcane industry, these technologies represent additional business opportunities. This set of solutions, ensure a sustainable business management.
Currently, consumers increasingly worry about what they consume, and are aware of the importance of a healthy lifestyle that also respects the environment. In this environment the overall trend shows a significant increase of the consumption of fruits and derivatives such as citrus fruit juices. As the production increases to meet this demand, so does the generation of solid by-products (pulps and peels) and liquids (effluents). With the experience of BIOTEC, these by-products (usually considered as waste) are converted in raw materials for renewable energy and fertilization.
Acidic effluents from the process of lemon and orange, as well as the husks, skins and seeds are used to generate biogas to meet steam and/or electricity demand replacing fossil fuels. Additionally the treated effluents / biodigestate is recycled to fertilize the plantation.
With the experience of BIOTEC, these by-products (usually considered as waste) are converted in raw materials for renewable energy and fertilization.
Effluent treatment (biodigesters- RAC and RAFAC models).
Use of the biogas (thermal and electrical).
Composting of agriculturalresidues.
Biodigestion of husk, skin and seed.
Liquid fertilization citrus of plantations with treated effluent.
BIOTEC offers customised solutions for many types of effluents and organic waste
BIOTEC has a long track record with UASB biogas plants for these effluents, with concrete or metallic reactors (welded or bolted). In all the cases, the main objective remains the same: ZERO DISCHARGE, with effluents and by-products valorization through animal feed, liquid or solid biofertilizer and biogas.
Major activity of BIOTEC is to transform the agro-industrial by-products into main raw materials, fertilizer and in energy (biogas), adapting to the Tropic the European experience in biodigestión. However, the world needs much more energy than the by-products and agro-industrial effluents can produce. Many regions of the world which do not have any electricity, or that only have diesel power plants, are coincidentally located in tropical areas, with high availability of land and few opportunities to market agricultural products. For this reason, BIOTEC has decided to focus its efforts on the production of energy (biogas) from tropical grasses and forages ("energy" crops for the Tropics and for the "Southern Cone" of Latin America).
The generation of biogas from biomass, for later use in power plants, differs completely from the combustion of biomass in boilers for generation of steam and electricity with steam turbines. This second option, relatively common in the world, takes advantage of the Rankin cycle, and is limited by two key constraints:
Compared with diesel power plants or LPG supply, the biogas generation with grasses and forage can be profitable at medium and large scale (500 kW to 5 MW). This technology recycles all the fermented organic matter (digestate or organic fertiliser) to the soils, achieving the highest yields without the necessity of chemical fertilisation.
The generation of biogas and electricity from grasses and forages is not a new concept: it is the energy source of most of the biogas produced today in Europe (in around 10.000 farms). Farmers initially added maize silage and grass to their manure; nowadays they process much more silage than manure.
BIOTEC has put all its R&D capacity to adapt this European concept to the Tropics with the support of SAUTER, its German technology partner (sauter-biogas.com).
This concept allows:
Setup of grass and forage farms
Grass and forage biodigesters implementation
Renewable natural gas and electricity generation
Biodigestion of husks, skins and seeds.